On 22 October 2019, the House of Commons agreed by 329 votes to 299 to grant the revised Withdrawal Agreement (negotiated by Boris Johnson earlier this month) at second reading, but when the accelerated timetable it proposed did not receive the necessary parliamentary support, Johnson announced that the legislation would be on hold.   At their Council meeting, the United Kingdom and the European Union reached an agreement on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union. The revised Withdrawal Agreement and the Political Declaration were discussed and approved at the European Council on 17 October 2019. 6.Am 29 March 2017, then-Prime Minister Rt Hon Theresa May MP informed the European Council of the United Kingdom`s intention to leave the European Union in accordance with Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union (TEU). Article 50 provides that after notification, the European Union should “negotiate and conclude an agreement with [the outgoing State] within two years, defining the modalities of its withdrawal, taking into account the framework of its future relations with the Union”.6 The agreement covers issues such as money, citizens` rights, border settlement and dispute settlement. It also contains a transition period and an overview of the future relationship between the UK and the EU. It was published on 14 November 2018 and was the result of the Brexit negotiations. The agreement was approved by the heads of state and government of the remaining 27 EU countries and by the British government led by Prime Minister Theresa May, but it met with opposition from the British Parliament, whose approval was required for ratification. The consent of the European Parliament would also have been necessary. On 15 January 2019, the House of Commons rejected the Withdrawal Agreement by 432 votes to 202.
 On March 12, 2019, the House of Commons again rejected the agreement by 391 votes to 242, and rejected a third time on March 29, 2019 by 344 votes to 286. On 22 October 2019, the revised withdrawal agreement negotiated by the Boris Johnson government opened the first stage in Parliament, but Johnson suspended the legislative process when the accelerated authorisation programme did not receive the necessary support and announced his intention to proclaim a general election.  On 23 January 2020, Parliament ratified the agreement by adopting the Withdrawal Agreement. On 29 January 2020, the European Parliament approved the Withdrawal Agreement. It was then closed by the Council of the European Union on 30 January 2020. The EU and the UK have reached an agreement on the Withdrawal Agreement, with a revised protocol on Ireland and Northern Ireland (removal of the backstop) and a revised political declaration. On the same day, the European Council (Article 50) approved these texts. With regard to the Irish border issue, there is a protocol on Northern Ireland (the “backstop”) which is annexed to the agreement and defines a return case position that will only enter into force in the absence of evidence of other effective arrangements before the end of the transitional period. If this is the case, the UK will eclipse the EU`s external common law and Northern Ireland will remain in the internal market aspects until such a manifestation is achieved. None of the parties can unilaterally withdraw from this customs union. The aim of this backstop agreement is to avoid a “hard” border in Ireland, where customs controls are necessary.  The agreement defines goods, services and related processes.
It argues that any product or service lawfully placed on the market before leaving the Union may continue to be made available to consumers in the United Kingdom or in the Member States of the Union (Art. 40 & 41). 12.Am 14 November 2018, a final draft withdrawal agreement was published together with a “draft” political declaration on the future relationship.11 A more comprehensive and definitive draft of the political declaration was published on 22 November. . . .